Political Science and Security Studies Journal https://psssj.eu/index.php/ojsdata <p>The <strong>“Political Science and Security Studies Journal”</strong> is a broad-based scientific journal aiming to be a pluralist platform for advancing academic knowledge and debate in the field of security and politics. The journal also publishes articles on further topics that fit the journal’s mission from scholars in related disciplines (sociology, philosophy, social psychology, computer sciences, economics and law).</p> High school of the social and economic en-US Political Science and Security Studies Journal 2719-6410 <p>The authors agree with the following conditions:</p> <p>1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication (<strong>Download agreement</strong>) with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>2. Authors have the right to complete individual additional agreements for the non-exclusive spreading of the journal’s published version of the work (for example, to post work in the electronic repository of the institution or to publish it as part of a monograph), with the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal.</p> <p>3. Journal’s politics allows and encourages the placement on the Internet (for example, in the repositories of institutions, personal websites, <a href="https://www.ssrn.com/en/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SSRN</a>, <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchGate</a>, <a href="https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">MPRA</a>, <a href="https://www.gesis.org/ssoar/home/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SSOAR</a>, etc.) manuscript of the work by the authors, before and during the process of viewing it by this journal, because it can lead to a productive research discussion and positively affect the efficiency and dynamics of citing the published work (see <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4837983/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> The social conscience forming in the context of engineering of social reality https://psssj.eu/index.php/ojsdata/article/view/150 <p>The article analyzes the significance of social engineering in the context of the possibilities of using modern information technologies to shape social reality in the interests of the subjects of social reality. It is assumed that social consciousness at the individual and group levels is largely the result of the influence of the social reality in which the target audiences are located. Thus, social consciousness formed with the help of technologies for constructing social reality can be directed both in the interests of society, in line with democratic values and principles of humanism, and vice versa, depending on who shapes social reality and for what purpose. Accordingly, if social engineering is carried out with good (humanistic) intentions, it can contribute to the development of civil society, strengthening social cohesion and promoting democratic principles and ethical norms. In other words, in an open democratic society, the constructed social reality should contribute to the progressive development of humanity in a world without wars.</p> <p>However, if social reality is constructed with the opposite intentions, its results will be different, aimed at strengthening authoritarian regimes, propaganda of war and ideas of conquering territories that “historically allegedly belong” to these regimes, fighting the rest of the world and forming a set of anti-humanistic values in society.</p> <p>In view of the above, information confrontation in the field of social reality construction is becoming important in the context of promoting the democratic values of Western civilization and consolidating a progressive society.</p> Yuriy Nedzelsky Copyright (c) 2024 Yuriy Nedzelsky https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2024-07-09 2024-07-09 5 2 1 6 10.5281/zenodo.12700862 Organisation and tasks of the control system in Poland in the process of ensuring the security of European Union funds in the financial perspective 2021-2027 https://psssj.eu/index.php/ojsdata/article/view/151 <p>The control system for EU budget funds is based on a division of responsibilities between the European Commission and the administrations of the Member States. States and regions have a decisive influence on the absorption rate of these funds and are responsible for their proper management. The European Commission supervises the use of these funds in accordance with the objectives of the programmes and the financial rules of the European Union (EU). The purpose of the controls is to verify the compliance of beneficiaries with the terms of the project co-financing agreement, as well as the correctness of the separate accounting and reporting for these funds. Control of projects co-financed from European funds concerns activities undertaken by various entities and in all phases of project implementation. The audit procedure covers the area of management of funds, the scope of authority of entities managing these funds, verifies the correctness of spending the funds. The scope of control also includes the assessment of solutions adopted within the framework of individual operational programmes in relation to the applicable EU and national legislation.</p> <p>Controls over the spending of EU funds are carried out by three institutions: the institution managing a given operational programme, the certifying institution and the audit institution. The task of the institutions managing particular operational programmes is to carry out document control, among others, of the reports on the progress of project implementation and final reports. The second level of control are the certifying authorities, whose task is to certify to the European Commission that the applications for reimbursement of expenditure are correct, properly accounted for in accordance with the principles of EU law. The certifying authorities forward the claims for reimbursement to the European Commission, having first ensured that the expenditure has been subject to appropriate checks. The effectiveness of the management and control system is checked by the National Audit Authority, which provides the European Commission with an audit report and opinion. Member States are primarily responsible for detecting irregularities in the spending of EU funds. If the amount involved exceeds €10,000, they are obliged to inform the EU fraud office OLAF. The organisation and functioning of the control system for EU funds continues to be the subject of research, with the aim of providing the necessary knowledge for representatives of the managing and coordinating institutions for the implementation of the various operational programmes. The results of these studies may also be relevant for beneficiaries of EU funds who are directly involved in the process of their application and settlement. A systematic analysis of the procedures and scope of control by institutions and state control bodies involved in the process of managing EU funds has a significant impact on reducing the occurrence of irregularities and fraud.</p> Bogdan Kołcz Copyright (c) 2024 Bogdan Kołcz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2024-07-09 2024-07-09 5 2 21 33 10.5281/zenodo.12701281 Empirical understanding of the problem of insecurity in Anambra state from 1999–2024 https://psssj.eu/index.php/ojsdata/article/view/152 <p>Security is one of the essential needs of people in Anambra State which has not been considerably ensured by government for more than two decades.&nbsp;For this&nbsp;reason, this study investigated&nbsp;the reason for the persistence of insecurity&nbsp;and commensurate measures for winning the war against insecurity in Anambra State, Nigeria&nbsp;through survey research method.&nbsp;The population of the study is 4,117,828. Using Taro Yamani formula, the researchers arrived at the sample size of 400. However, the study was established with one hundred and seventy five valid questionnaire as 56 questionnaires were unreturned while 169 were either not completely responded to or mutilated.&nbsp;This paper revealed five key causes of insecurity in the state and also five applicable remedies.&nbsp;It is the conclusion of this paper that&nbsp;Nigeria has retrogressed in all areas because the political gladiators has refused to tackle the problem of insecurity.&nbsp;We recommended that Anambra state should run a responsive government that effectively tackles the factors that led to the wanton rate of insecurity in the state through well implemented: poverty alleviation programmes, education for all initiative, mass employment of qualified but unemployed graduates, and revitalization of the security operatives in the state.</p> Rosemary Ogomegbunam Anazodo Stephen Chioke Ebele Jacinta Obijaju Copyright (c) 2024 Rosemary Ogomegbunam Anazodo, Stephen Chioke, Ebele Jacinta Obijaju https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2024-07-09 2024-07-09 5 2 34 43 10.5281/zenodo.12701329 The role of naval strike drones in the Russia-Ukraine war https://psssj.eu/index.php/ojsdata/article/view/153 <p>Modern military conflicts increasingly depend on advanced technologies. The use of unmanned naval drones can transform traditional military operations by reducing human risks and enhancing attack efficiency. Leading nations worldwide are actively developing and deploying such technologies, closely observing Ukraineʼs successes in this field.</p> Yehor Troshkin Copyright (c) 2024 Yehor Troshkin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2024-07-09 2024-07-09 5 2 44 54 10.5281/zenodo.12701509